2010.4.2    高雄律師-楊岡儒律師


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◎原標題:法學英文選讀(8)訴訟權導讀2:訴訟權(The Right of Instituting Legal ProceedingsThe Right of Legal Actions)之憲法保障內涵(Guaranteed under Article 16 of the Constitution)(註*奇摩的標題限制100字。)


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憲法第16條規定:『人民有請願、訴願及訴訟之權。』其中關於訴訟權(The Right of Instituting Legal ProceedingsThe Right of Legal Actions),如以憲法保障內涵(Guaranteed under Article 16 of the Constitution),由廣義司法之效力及司法之實質拘束效力以觀,自應包含:向法院提起訴訟,以及涉及司法效力之法律活動或司法行動(Legal Actions)(例如:非訟事件之公證;訴外之仲裁)。以下謹然就訴訟權之憲法保障面向,引用大法官會議解釋591號之內容,提供大家略為參考。


 


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兔寶寶律師謹筆   


2010.4.2   


 


 


大法官會議解釋:釋字第591 (節錄)  


解釋文:


憲法第十六條所保障之訴訟權,旨在確保人民於其權利受侵害時,有依法定程序提起訴訟,並受法院公平審判之權利。惟訴訟應循之程序及相關要件,立法機關得衡量訴訟案件之種類、性質、訴訟制度之功能訴訟外解決紛爭之法定途徑等因素,為正當合理之規定;倘其規範內容合乎上開意旨,且有其必要性者,即與憲法保障訴訟權之意旨無違。


 


民事紛爭事件之類型,因社會經濟活動之變遷趨於多樣化,為期定分止爭,國家除設立訴訟制度外,尚有仲裁其他非訴訟之機制。基於國民主權原理及憲法對人民基本權利之保障,人民既為私法上之權利主體,於程序上亦應居於主體地位,俾其享有程序處分權及程序選擇權,於無礙公益之一定範圍內,得以合意選擇循訴訟或其他法定之非訴訟程序處理爭議。仲裁係人民依法律之規定,本於契約自由原則,以當事人合意選擇依訴訟外之途徑處理爭議之制度,兼有程序法與實體法之雙重效力,具私法紛爭自主解決之特性,為憲法之所許。


 


J. Y. Interpretation No.591 (excerpts from the No.591)


Holdingexcerpts):


The right of instituting legal proceedings as guaranteed under Article 16 of the Constitution is aimed to ensure that when the people's rights are infringed, they may institute legal proceedings pursuant to procedures set by the law, and shall be entitled to fair trials. In respect of the procedures to be followed and the relevant requirements, however, the legislature may set forth reasonable and equitable rules after weighing such various factors as the type and nature of cases, the functions of a litigation system, as well as the statutory means to resolve a dispute out of court. As long as the relevant provisions tally with the aforesaid intentions and are necessary, they are not contrary to the constitutional intent to guarantee the right of instituting legal proceedings.


 


The types of civil disputes have tended to become more and  more diverse as the social and economic circumstances have constantly changed. In order to determine the relative duties of disputing parties and thus to resolve disputes, the State has established such mechanisms as arbitration and other non-litigious means in addition to the litigation systems. Under the doctrine of national sovereignty and the constitutional guarantee of the people ’ s fundamental rights, the people should assume principal roles in the procedure so as to enjoy the rights of procedural disposition and procedure option whereby they are enabled to choose through mutual agreement to resolve a dispute by means of litigation or any other statutorily prescribed non-litigious dispute resolution procedure to the extent that public interests are not contravened since they are the subjects of rights under private law. Arbitration is a system under which the parties, accordingto the law and based on the principle of freedom of contract, choose through mutual agreement to resolve a dispute via non-litigious means. The system has the dual effects of both procedural and substantive laws and possesses the quality of autonomous resolution of disputes arising from private causes,which is acknowledged by the Constitution.



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