2010.3.31    高雄律師-楊岡儒律師


本次選讀之『正當法律程序原則(Due Process of Law)』,主要內涵在於『實質正當之法律程序』應兼攝「實體法及程序法規定之內容」(Covers Substantive law as well as Procedural law,因此,於法制上之法律制定,必本於其實質正當性而為設置,且執行上亦須兼顧其實質性、正當性、允妥性等立法目的內涵。


 


以下茲引用我國憲政史上,大法官會議解釋針對『人身自由權之保障』,闡述有關『正當法律程序原則(Due Process of Law)』及『實質正當性(Substantive Due Process)』之內涵。也請大家若有興趣,可以參考大法官釋字第384號之全部內文( 孫森焱 老師對於『正當法律程序』之見解,於該號解釋協同意見書中,有做相當詳細之介紹及闡述。)


 


祝福大家安好與順心如意


兔寶寶律師謹筆   


2010.3.31


 


附註:


很久沒有見到 王澤鑑 老師及 孫森焱 老師了,一方面也是我有陣子跑去美國之故;兔寶寶律師深受兩位老師恩澤, 王 老師給予我學術上之啟蒙很深, 孫 老師則多從實務上兼攝學理見解切入;遙想當年,不經略為感懷,


謹此祝福兩位老師安好,我也會繼續努力的。


 


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大法官會議解釋:釋字第384號理由書(節錄) 


理由書:


人民身體自由享有充分保障,乃行使其憲法上所保障其他自由權利之前提,為重要之基本人權。故憲法第八條對人民身體自之保障,特詳加規定。該條第一項規定:「人民身體之自由應予保障。除現行犯之逮捕由法律另定外,非經司法或警察機關依法定程序,不得逮捕拘禁。非由法院依法定程序,不得審問處罰。非依法定程序之逮捕,拘禁,審問,處罰,得拒絕之。」係指凡限制人民身體自由之處置,在一定限度內為憲法保留之範圍,不問是否屬於刑事被告身分,均受上開規定之保障。除現行犯之逮捕,由法律另定外,其他事項所定之程序,亦須以法律定之,且立法機關於制定法律時,其內容更須合於實質正當,並應符合憲法第二十三條所定之條件,此乃屬人身自由之制度性保障。舉凡憲法施行以來已存在之保障人身自由之各種建制及現代法治國家對於人身自由所普遍賦予之權利與保護,均包括在內,否則人身自由之保障,勢將徒託空言,而首開憲法規定,亦必無從貫徹。


 


前述實質正當之法律程序,兼指實體法及程序法規定之內容,就實體法而言,如須遵守罪刑法定主義;就程序法而言,如犯罪嫌疑人除現行犯外,其逮捕應踐行必要之司法程序、被告自白須出於自由意志、犯罪事實應依證據認定、同一行為不得重覆處罰、當事人有與證人對質或詰問證人之權利、審判與檢察之分離、審判過程以公開為原則及對裁判不服提供審級救濟等為其要者。除依法宣告戒嚴或國家、人民處於緊急危難之狀態, 容許其有必要之例外情形外,各種法律之規定,倘與上述各項原則悖離,即應認為有違憲法上實質正當之法律程序。


 


J. Y. Interpretation No.384 (excerpts from the No.384)


Reasoningexcerpts:


Full protection of physical freedom is the prerequisite condition for people to enjoy other freedoms and rights guaranteed by the Constitution and is an important fundamental right. Article 8 of the Constitution, therefore, specifically provides for the protection of physical freedom of the people. Its Paragraph 1 provides that "Physical freedom shall be guaranteed to the people. In no case except that of flagrante delicto, which shall be separately prescribed by law, shall any person be arrested or detained other than by a judicial or police organ in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law. No person shall be tried or punished other than by a court in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law. Any arrest, detention, trial or punishment not carried out in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law may be resisted. It indicates that people, no matter whether their status is that of a criminal defendant or not, are protected by the above provision from any measures restraining physical freedom, except as otherwise provided by the Constitution. Except in the case of flagrante delicto which shall be separately prescribed by law, all other procedures governing arrest, detention, or punishment shall be based on statutes. Furthermore, the law passed by the legislative body must be proper in substance and comply with the conditions set up in Article 23 of the Constitution. This is the way of systematic protection of physical freedom. After the enactment of the Constitution, the idea was included in all existing organizational systems which protect physical freedom in our nation, and also in countries with the rule of law which universally provides the endowment and protection of the right to physical freedom. If it were otherwise, the protection of physical freedom would exist only in the form of words, and the above constitutional provisions would never be enforced.


 


The above substantive due process of law covers substantive law as well as procedural law. In substantive law, it must comply with the principle of legality. In procedural law, examples are as follows: except in the case of flagrante delicto, the arrest of a suspect shall follow necessary judicial process; the accused's confession shall be voluntary; a conviction shall be based upon evidence; no person shall be subject to punishment for the same offence twice; the parties have the right to confront and cross-examine their witnesses; the separation of the judiciary and prosecution; trials shall be public in principle; and the right to appeal the lower court's decision. Unless in the permissible exception that martial law is declared in accordance with the law, or when the state or the people are in a state of emergency, all statutory provisions are deemed to contradict the substantive due process of law if they are inconsistent with the above said principles.



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